Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the mechanisms and laws of occurrence, development, as well as the methods for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant tumors. The essence of oncological diseases is the uncontrolled proliferation of mutated cells of the body.

Why are the malignant tumors being dangerous?

As opposed to the benign tumor, the malignant tumor, that is cancer, has a high mutagenicity and gives metastases that penetrate into the vital organs, change their structure and functions, and, as a result, lead to functional abnormality and body systems failure. Also, in case of tumor development and activity, there is an increase in toxins in the blood.

What organs are vulnerable to oncological diseases and what are the causes of cancer? 

Oncological diseases are systemic and affect, anyhow, all human organs and systems. They are associated with hereditary predisposition, gender and age. So, for example, the diseases of skin, lungs and digestive system organs are mostly presented in young men, and prostate disorder – in men of older age. Young women are more likely to have cervical, skin, digestive system organs and pulmonary diseases, while older women have mammary gland diseases. Leukemia and lymphoma usually show up by children.

It is worth mentioning that lung diseases have the highest lethality rate among all the oncological diseases regardless of gender and age.   

The most frequent locations within the illness patterns are: 
  • skin
  • mammary gland 
  • trachea, bronchi, lung
  • stomach
  • large intestine
  • prostate gland 
  • rectum, rectosigmoid junction and anus
  • lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue 
  • uterine body
  • kidney
  • pancreas
  • uterine cervix
  • urinary bladder
  • ovaries 
The most frequent malignant tumors in men are:
  • trachea, bronchi, lung tumors (usually at a young and middle age)
  • prostate gland (the first place among the men of old and advanced age)
  • skin
  • stomach 
  • large intestine 
The following oncological diseases are presented in women: 
  • breast cancer
  • skin tumors 
  • uterine body
  • large intestine 
  • stomach
  • uterine cervix 
  • rectum, rectosigmoid junction, anus
  • ovary
  • lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue
  • trachea, bronchi, lung


Malignant tumor statistics in children 

More often the diseases of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue appear in children (hemoblastosis – most common of them are lymphoid malignancies).

What symptoms and signs do the oncological diseases have?

In the early stages, oncological diseases usually proceed without visible clinical signs. The symptoms that create the cause to visit a doctor, are manifested in later stages.

The symptoms of oncological diseases are, unfortunately, general and nonspecific, which are observed in various diseases and mask the primary disease. It is also possible to identify local signs and complaints associated with organ damage, where the tumor is located.

General no-specific symptoms:

  • General worsening of state  
  • Loss of appetite 
  • Weakness 
  • Decrease in immunity
  • Fever 
  • Pain 
  • Idiopathic body weight loss
  • Cough, voice changes, hoarseness 
  • Anemia 


Local symptoms:

  • Induration or swelling in one or another area 
  • Raise of moles / birthmarks 
  • Skin color change 
  • Lymph nodes enlargement 


What diagnostic methods are used in oncology?

The greatest success in the treatment of cancer disease depends on its timely detection. In order to monitor your health, as well as in case you have any suspicious symptoms or complaints, you can contact Remed Health and undergo an examination in Turkey, according to an individually for you prepared diagnostic plan, elaborated in cooperation with highly qualified specialists from the best clinics.

In oncology, as well as in all other specializations of medicine, the diagnostics goes successively from more simple to more complex and high-precision methods, and consists of laboratory and instrumental methods, the results of which are analyzed taking into account the patient’s condition, symptoms and complaints.

The laboratory methods are:

  • (complete, biochemical, hormones) blood tests 
  • cancer-specific markers and other specific tests 
  • AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) 
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen)
  • CA-125 
  • CA-15-3
  • CA-19-9
  • CA-242 
  • PSA
  • Urine test


Endoscopic and radiological methods qualify as instrumental methods: 
  • Colposcopy
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Fibrocolonoscopy
  • EGD (fibrogastroduodenoscopy) and other endoscopic methods


Radiological diagnostics:
  • Digital radiography, mammography (digital radiography of mammary glands)
  • CT-diagnostics (computed tomography with or without contrast)
  • MRI-diagnostics (magnetic resonance imaging)
  • PET-CT diagnostics (positron emission tomography of the whole organism) 
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) is a diagnostic method based on the use of radiopharmaceutical agents. As a radiopharmaceutical agent for PET in the diagnostics of oncologic diseases, the most often are used specially labeled glucose particles (fluorodeoxyglucose, or F18-FDG.), which are introducted intravenously. Tumor cells consume and accumulate glucose much more active than normal tissues, since tumor cells are characterized by an increased metabolism. Based on distribution in the body of labeled glucose, the results of a PET-CT examination are formed. Indications for carrying out a PET-CT examination are: diagnostics of malignant diseases, assessment of the prevalence of an already determined malignant tumor (staging / re-staging) and detection of metastases, evaluation of the effectiveness of the performed treatment, and detection of recurrence (in case of tumor markers increase in the blood serum). PET-CT is also used to identify the primary tumor site (with already detected metastases), to make a differential diagnostics of tumor recurrence and post-therapeutic changes, to schedule radiation therapy, to determine the tumor site for biopsy planning.
  • Ultrasonography-diagnostics
  • Biopsy, cytological examinations, histological examinations of blood and tissues samples 
Types of Cancer Treatment

Patients often perceive an oncological diagnosis as an incurable disease, but this is not true. Due to modern progress in early diagnostics and to the latest developed methods of treatment, most tumors, including malignant ones, are successfully treated. Successful treatment depends on the timely detection of the disease.

Treatment methods depend on the type of disease, its stage and course, location and volume of the tumor, metastases, the patient’s condition and on many other factors. 

The advantages of oncological treatment in Turkey

The clinics of Turkey work in accordance with global standards using the best practices of colleagues from Europe and USA as well as their own unique experience. Turkey is among the countries that are top requested for treatment.    

  • Early non-invasive diagnostics of cancer 
  • Ultramodern equipment
  • Well-developed scientific-research medical infrastructure 
  • Use of the most recent technologies in laboratory researches 
  • Highly qualified doctors, constantly getting their education not only in Turkey, but also in the European countries, in the USA, etc. 
  • Balanced ration of price and quality of medical services 
  • 50 medical institutions are accredited according to JCI system 
  • The citizens of a series of countries are attracted by reasonable and favorable prices together with high treatment quality standards in Turkey. 
  • In Turkish clinics a psychological comfort and a real kindness of all the medical personnel is guaranteed to the patients.